The group of varnishes includes paint materials, which are a solution of natural or synthetic films (forming substances) in organic solvents. Recently, water-soluble varnishes are increasingly used, especially for internal use. Enamel or enamel varnish is a suspension of pigments (sometimes fillers) in varnish. After application in a thin layer on the treated substrate and drying (ie hardening), which is the result of a chemical reaction, the varnish forms a transparent and the enamel an opaque coating.
For interior use, acrylic (water) and polyurethane varnishes are most often used, intended for wooden surfaces - doors, sills, steps, shelves, joinery, etc. They are easy to apply, dry quickly and form a long-lasting and impact-resistant coating. They can be water-soluble or based on organic solvents. They offer different degrees of gloss - from glossy to silky to matte. They can be both transparent and colored. They are designed to create a film that is as resistant to scratches, high temperature and high humidity.
Varnishes for floor coverings and stairs also offer a wide range of products with different colors and different degrees of gloss. Here the main requirement is that the varnish forms a abrasion-resistant coating, especially if you choose it for a kitchen, hallway or other room with active traffic. There are also very durable transparent varnishes with glossy and silky luster (usually based on polyurethane), which provide maximum protection. They can be applied after other products for processing or painting wood. When working with polyurethane varnishes, the manufacturers' instructions regarding the intervals between the application of successive layers must be strictly observed. If the second layer is applied faster than recommended, unevenness in the coating may occur, and when you wait longer than necessary, the adhesion (adhesion) between the layers is impaired. In both cases, the performance of the film deteriorates.
Many impregnating compositions for unpainted wooden surfaces also belong to this section. They do not hide the texture of the wood. There are some that are designed to protect the material, others to reduce the absorption of the substrate relative to the next coating, and some combine both. Tint varnishes are often used to paint painted and unpainted surfaces in the premises, creating a transparent, strong, and easy-to-clean coating. They are also available in a wide range of colors and different glitters. They are most suitable for surfaces with a small area - railings, frames, furniture, shelves, sills. Varnishes imitating a wooden texture (texture, fabric structure) are very well used for furniture, MDF surfaces and other wooden surfaces in the premises. Their range is relatively limited, but they are indispensable when you want to create the aesthetic effect of wood on a smooth surface. If you want to paint wooden surfaces in a certain color and get an opaque, uniform and colorful coating, use special wood paints. To get a shine on top you can combine with a suitable varnish.
There is a wide range of materials in both the indoor and outdoor group, depending on the effect you are aiming for. These include enamels, stains, primers, varnishes, impregnating, preserving and fixing compositions. Some of them are suitable for both indoor and outdoor use.
Stains can be water or organic. They are usually transparent, but there are also translucent and opaque. If you want to refresh the color of furniture or other wooden surfaces in the room, use water-based stains, as they are environmentally friendly and harmless. Often a protective layer of transparent coating - varnish - is placed on the stain. When it comes to outdoor wooden surfaces - exterior doors, windows, fences, garden furniture, facades, pavements of terraces and alleys, etc., you need to choose compositions that form a durable coating resistant to climate change. Stains and varnishes for external use must also have UV protection and be waterproof. Varnishes for external use are usually based on organic solvents. They can be used as a final coating on paints, stains and preservatives. However, there are also water-based products suitable for outdoor application, such as garden furniture. They are quick-drying, with a slight odor and are designed to form a coating resistant to sunlight.
In general, impregnating compositions for outdoor wood protection are based on waxes. They have a protective-decorative function and mainly water-repellent properties. Protect from moisture penetration, bending and splitting of the material. Fungicides and insecticides are added to some of them, which makes them preservatives to protect against rot and fungal growth, mold, animals, microorganisms and insects. There are also special varnishes, stains and enamels that protect surfaces from fire, ie. the material becomes more difficult to ignite and less combustible. They are suitable for both external and internal use.